Shallow: students are highly dependent on the teacher for specific instructions.
Deep: Students are interdependent and work peer-to-peer as well as with the teacher.
Shallow: Students dislike trying new activities, as lack of success may negatively impact their grades.
Deep: Students see value in taking risks in their learning, are able to learn from their mistakes, and reflect and take appropriate action.
Shallow: Students focus on strategies to acquire grades.
Deep: Students focus on strategies and habits to improve their learing.
Shallow: Students are passive and compliant.
Deep: Students are active and engaged.
Shallow: Students find it difficult to explain or find connections between topics or units.
Deep: Students can explain connections between units and explain how topics relate to the big picture of the course.
Shallow: Students view evidence for learning as a grade or mark.
Deep: Students view learning as an ongoing process.
Shallow: Students see topics as lists of facts to be memorized and quickly forgotten.
Deep: Students can relate topics to the bigger picture of the topic and explain why and how it relates.
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